Corruption is a pervasive issue that can affect all administrative systems of a country. Defining an Anti-Corruption Strategy requires recognizing the root causes of corruption in a structure, and a core mission or executives. In all societies, greed and poverty motivate people into corrupt practices. Corruption is also manifested by cultural weakness and degradation, and it prevents from the growth and development of societies and reduces the opportunities for effective efforts of individuals, institutions and organizations and increasing security threats. The experience gained in various societies suggests that corruption has complex dimensions, and the struggle requires an organized and systematic policy. Although the corruption problem is affecting the whole of Afghanistan, it is more severe and systematic in third-ranking provinces. Located in the western region of Afghanistan, Badghis and Ghor provinces are among the most deprived provinces and ranked as 3rd-grade provinces with inadequate government attention for many years. It is estimated that Ghor province surface area of 38,600 Kilometers with the total population of 800,000 (51.2% male and 48.8% female) Including 9 districts (Do-Laina, Dawltyar. Lal-o-Sar Jangal, Char-Sada, Pasaband, Shahrak, Teowra, Tolak, and Saghar) and the literacy rate of 26%. As well with Badghis, the province surface area of 23,000 Kilometers with the total estimated population of 439,500 including 6 districts (Qadis, Moqor, Jawand, Ab-Kamari, Bala-Morghab, and Qala now) and the literacy rate of 29.48%. While there are no accurate statistics on corruption-related issues in Badghis and Ghor provinces, local surveys, corruption cases, and media coverage of recent corruption problems imply a high level of corruption in both provinces. A survey report carried out in mid-2015 by Provincial Strategic Planning Team in Ghor province and its 3 districts (Lal-o-Sar Jangal, Do-laina, and Dawlatyar) indicates that key institutions in this province are in first grade in corruption. According to this report Judiciary sector, Education, Police, Public Health, Municipality, Justice, and provincial government are cited as first-grade corrupt departments. Next, are the departments of rural development, Taxation department (Mostofiat) and Department of Economy at 2nd grade and Department of Labor and Social Affairs, Provincial Council, Election commission, and Governor Office cited as 3rd-grade corrupt Institutions. As well, with Badghis province, Judiciary sector reports to media (Kohandazh and Afghan News) indicate that some key government officials were arrested in recent months including: Abdul Bari Sorkhabi Director of Economy Department, Mohammad Shah Shafaq Director of Taxation Department (Mostofiat), Najibullah Sabet Director of Justice, Ab-Kamari district Governor and some other key government officials.

Despite millions of dollars of spending and the National unity government commitments in the fight

against corruption, the country scored very badly in Transparency International’s latest Corruption

Perception Index (CPI). Subsequently, there is no government agency in Afghanistan that is free of

corruption, whereas 3rd-grade provinces citizens like Badghis and Ghor are subject to serious corruption harm. A survey-based study by Integrity Watch Afghanistan (IWA) in 2016 states that “Afghans pay $ 3 billion in bribes annually.” In addition, the IWA study assessing the major problems in both provinces, 49% in Ghor and 24% in Badghis province cited corruption as a major problem after insecurity and unemployment. Consequently, weak rule of law, ambition to become rich, and low salary of civil servants are considered the main root cause of corruption in public sector. In the IWA-2016 national corruption survey report, 81.05% of citizens are not aware of corruption measures (Page-54), only 9% of citizens are aware around corruption by civil society (Page-29), 67% don’t know about corruption registration process and which organization to submit the complaint to (Page-49). As well, in this report 16% cited lack of monitoring bodies as reason for increasing corruption (Page-29), 6% because of lack of evidence do not report corruption (Page-52), and finally 43.67% believes corruption is much higher than Agreement No. GA-008 Page 9 of 33 in past years with 72% stating that they don’t trust local service providers because of corruption (Page- 41). As well, 39% strongly agree/agree that corruption is worse in districts than in the province. Weaknesses in the administrative system, the lack of sanctions, and a general culture of impunity are cited as the main facilitating factors for corruption. The most common practice of corrupt behavior by civil servants is to delay service delivery until a bribe is paid (mushkil-tarashi). A large majority of respondents indicated that 50-100% of government services commonly sought to require some sort of corrupt practice. The Judiciary (Judges, prosecutors, courts) 70%, municipalities 38%, Labor and social affairs32%, education 31%, district government and governors 22% and Health sector 20% were considered to be the most corrupt institutions. The project will, therefore, focus on this narrow, but the common area of malpractice.

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